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References on RED (Random Early Detection) Queue Management
Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V.,
Random Early Detection gateways for Congestion Avoidance
V.1 N.4, August 1993, p. 397-413.
This is the basic paper that describes RED gateways.
B. Braden, D. Clark, J. Crowcroft, B. Davie, S. Deering, D. Estrin, S.
Floyd, V. Jacobson, G. Minshall, C. Partridge, L. Peterson, K.
Ramakrishnan, S. Shenker, J. Wroclawski, L. Zhang,
Recommendations on Queue Management and Congestion Avoidance in the
Available as RFC 2309
text) as an Informational RFC.
- Floyd, S., and Fall, K., papers about
Promoting the Use of End-to-End Congestion Control in the Internet.
- Elloumi, O., and Afifi, H.,
RED Algorithm in ATM Networks.
Tech report, June 1997.
- Other papers related to RED can be found by
searching for "Random Early Detection" on
Bibliography of Networking Research.
Proposed Modifications to RED
- Dong Lin and Robert Morris,
Dynamics of Random Early Detection.
SIGCOMM 97. This paper proposes FRED, a
variant of RED, that uses per-active-connection
accounting to make
different dropping decisions for connections with
different bandwidth usages.
- W. Feng, D. Kandlur, D. Saha, K. Shin,
Techniques for Eliminating Packet Loss in Congested TCP/IP Networks,
U. Michigan CSE-TR-349-97, November 1997.
This paper proposes Adaptive RED, which adjusts the packet dropping
probability "max_p" based on the past history of the average queue
- Van Jacobson,
Notes on using RED for Queue Management and Congestion
talk at NANOG 13, June 1998.
- V. Rosolen, O. Bonaventure, and G. Leduc,
A RED discard strategy for ATM networks and its performance evaluation with TCP/IP traffic,
under submission, and
Impact of cell discard strategies on TCP/IP in ATM UBR networks,
Proc. of the 6th Workshop on Performance Modelling and Evaluation of ATM
Networks (IFIP ATM'98) Ilkley, UK,
These papers investigate a modified version of RED with a smoothed
packet-dropping probability that varies from "max_p" to 1
as the average queue size varies
from "maxthresh" to twice "maxthresh".
This variant of RED is then modified for an ATM switch. Simulation
results compare plain UBR with UBR with Early Packet Discard (EPD),
Fair Buffer Allocation (FBA), and with RED.
- Floyd, S.,
TCP and Explicit Congestion Notification.
ACM Computer Communication Review, V. 24 N. 5, October 1994, p. 10-23.
[This issue of CCR incorrectly has "1995" on the cover instead of "1994".]
- Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V.,
On Traffic Phase Effects in Packet-Switched Gateways.
Internetworking: Research and Experience,
V.3 N.3, September 1992, p.115-156.
An earlier version of this paper
appeared in Computer Communication Review, V.21 N.2, April 1991.
- Floyd, S.,
Connections with Multiple Congested Gateways in Packet-Switched Networks
Part 1: One-way Traffic.
Computer Communications Review, Vol.21, No.5, October 1991, p. 30-47.
Active Queue Management with Per-Flow Scheduling
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Last modified: January 1999